"Look. So this spiral, this is the golden ratio and it’s a mathematical pattern that just repeats itself in nature… in flower petals and honey bees and, you know, the stars in the galaxy and.. and in every molecule of our DNA." - Cosima Niehaus
|10-year-old me:||Wow idk that's a lot of money|
|15-year-old me:||Kickass, that's so cheap|
|20-year-old me:||Wow idk that's a lot of money|
I’d never have made it here alive without River Song.
The questions asked in Sarah Manning’s interrogation scene weren’t scripted. Graeme gave vocal coach John Nelles a list of questions to ask Tatiana, and her answers were improvised. This method provided a very surprising and moving scene for everyone – including Tatiana
photos of sakurajima, the most active volcano in japan, by (click pic) takehito miyatake (previously featured) and martin rietze. volcanic storms can rival the intensity of massive supercell thunderstorms, but the source of the charge responsible for this phenomenon remains hotly debated.
in the kind of storm clouds that generate conventional lightning, ice particles and soft hail collide, building up positive and negative charges, respectively. they separate into layers, and the charge builds up until the electric field is high enough to trigger lightning.
but the specific mechanism by which particles of differing charges are separated in the ash cloud is still unknown. lightning has been observed between the eruption plume and the volcano right at the start of an eruption, suggesting that there are processes that occur inside the volcano to lead to charge separation.
volcanic lightning could yield clues about the earth’s geological past, and could answer questions about the beginning of life on our planet. volcanic lightning could have been the essential spark that converted water, hydrogen, ammonia, and methane molecules present on a primeval earth into amino acids, the building blocks of life.
(see also: previous volcanology posts)